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Portrayals of Vampires Throughout History

Angela is a lover of the supernatural and Greek mythology. Although naturally skeptical, she loves hearing theories of the unknown.

Many plays and movies have been written about vampires.

Many plays and movies have been written about vampires.

Vampires have infiltrated our pop culture. They are the topic of many popular books, television series, and movies. Look at Twilight for just one recent example. In the late nineties, there was Buffy the Vampire Slayer. Before that, The Lost Boys was popular, and way before that—there was Dracula. These are just a few examples of how ancient myths have been streamlined into our culture. It doesn't matter if you are going to the movie theater, the bookstore, or even the local store on Halloween, images of the "undead" bombard you. But what started the vampire lore?

Studying ancient Persia reveals the oldest record of vampire lore. Archeologists found a vase that depicted a strange creature trying to suck the blood of a person. There are many other legends, myths, and folklore that discuss these awful blood-sucking creatures. Although not all vampires are evil, you can find good humane vampires that have souls like in Angel or Twilight. Still, there are some consistencies and beliefs that you can see consistent throughout history and today.

Ancient Beliefs of Vampires: Dhampir and More

Although many of these beliefs are often more modern, some of these beliefs stem back as far as the Greeks. The simplest and most popular theory is that vampires suck the blood of animals or people to gain the life force of others. This in turn makes them eternal. They are stuck in the dark, and can never expose themselves to sunlight. If they do ever find themselves in the sun, they will either burn, turn to dust, or even turn to stone.

Vampires, especially more modern vampires, are known for their heightened sex drive. They often are bisexual (usually the female vampires) and will seduce their prey before attacking. Let's not forget the fact that they are believed to bite one of the most sensual parts on a human body: the neck.

Some believe vampires can procreate with humans, and the offspring of the two is called dhampir. A dhampir is usually the result of a male vampire and a female human mating—the reverse is rarely found in the literature. Dhampirs are not immortal like their fathers but can see invisible vampires; many become vampire hunters. Their offspring likely have the same ability and often take up the same profession.

But never fear, there are ways to fend off these nasty seductive creatures. Vampires usually cannot enter churches, nor someone's house unless invited in. Crucifixes harm them, they detest garlic, and of course, they can be killed by a wooden stake through the heart.

So, where did these beliefs originate? Many of this is unknown, but here are a few ancient views regarding these attractive demon creatures.

One of the most consistent traits of a vampire is that they drink blood.

One of the most consistent traits of a vampire is that they drink blood.

Babylonian Legend of Vampires

There is an early record found in old Hebrew texts that stems from the first man. It claims Adam (as in Adam and Eve) had another wife—his first wife—named Lilith or Lilitu. She was a deity who drank the blood of babies, and later left Adam because she felt that he was inferior to her. The text also refers to Lilith as the Queen of Demons.

Still, there is a twist to this legend that talks of Caine, the son of Adam and Eve. The story still holds that Lilith is Adam's first wife, but she was not a vampire. After Caine committed the first murder, he turned to Lilith. Lilith taught him how to use his blood for mystic powers. She said that by doing so, he could make others more like himself. Caine initially resisted this temptation, believing that it would be cruel to create others who would murder and be evil like himself. Unfortunately, after being estranged from all men, he became lonely and decided to make three more like himself. That three begot thirteen more, and the numbers continued to grow.

Indian Legend of Vampires

Another ancient vampire story found in Indian history was just like the one with Lilith. It did not use the term vampire, but the belief that there is power in drinking blood is very much consistent. Indian folklore centers around a goddess named Kali. Kali was a goddess who had four arms, fangs, and a necklace of skulls. Kali teamed up with another goddess named Durga because she wanted to defeat a demon named Raktabija. Raktabija would reproduce himself from spilled blood, making himself eternal. Whenever he would die, he reproduced from the spilled blood. When Durga and Kalie teamed up, they defeated Raktabija, killing him. Before he could reproduce himself from the spilled blood, Kali drank it, depriving Raktabija of his ability to recreate himself. He died.

The Folk Vampire Legend

These stories predated the folk vampire and showed the significance of us humans' place on blood. Through these stories, people began telling stories of vampires. So that there is no confusion when I refer to a folk vampire, it is one that predates the literary vampire. It's the lore behind the lore. These vampires are much cruder and less appealing. There was nothing sexy about the folk vampire. They are foul-smelling, as you would expect a partially decomposing person to be, for they often came up from their grave. They are thirsty and nothing else with no soul, no real thought, and vicious. Whereas the literary and the Hollywood version of a vampire tends to be sexy and cunning, the folk vampire lacked these qualities and was feared and repulsive.

Origin of Vampires

For how many different cultures have come up with similar folklore, one might wonder where it originated. Why so many people had fears of the same kind of monster. One historian had grand ideas of why stories of vampires arose. He felt that they started because of severe collective ignorance. Before there were regulations on burials such as how deep, etc., often, a body would find itself uncovered. People began to formulate their own beliefs as to what was happening. Some of these beliefs may be due to animals digging up bodies from a grave, and people trying to make sense of how the bodies got out of the graves. Other ways these creatures may have become uncovered were due to flooding bringing them up, or maybe even grave robbers looking for loot.

There is also a theory that surrounds the 1500s as the Black Plague arose. They believe that people were in such a frenzy to eradicate the disease, that sometimes the bodies were not thoroughly examined and assured they were dead before buried. They would sometimes find bodies out of their graves. It's important to note that the gravesites were not very deep, so when people would awaken after being buried alive, they would try to dig out, leaving themselves bloody and disheveled. They then usually collapsed somewhere near the grave. As people tried to make sense of how this could happen, they would formulate ideas that the person came back from the dead.

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Read More From Exemplore

Another reason this idea of a vampire may have erroneously originated was that there is some postpartum movement that occurs. They may have feared that a body still had a life form, an evil life form in the body when they would see movement from a dead body.

Then, of course, just everyday imagination. Just like any good book is written, there was a good imagination behind the stories. One such story was Bram Stoker's Dracula.

Bram Stoker plaque.

Bram Stoker plaque.

Stoker's Dracula

Bram Stoker, the author of Dracula, stated that the myth began in Transylvania. Although we can see this is most likely untrue, there are many similarities between Stoker's Dracula to the ancient ones. Dracula, in this story, is a very average man. The thing that arises interest in him most is the fact that there is a very unsettling feeling surrounding his castle. These vampires originated due to a unique disease that had placed them in their current state. They are cunning, with unique abilities where they crawl upside down and on walls. These vampires, like many others, can be killed with a wooden stake and are repelled through the simple use of garlic.

Vlad III the Impaler most likely inspired Dracula. His nickname was Dracula—which means son of the dragon. The story was actually about his father Vlad II Dracul. He was the Prince of Wallachia during the 1450s in Romania. He was known for being ruthless against his enemies, which is what caused the moniker "the Impaler." Vlad III is written about in the book, An Account of the Principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia: with various Political Observations Relating to Them, by William Wilkinson. This book was often referenced in Stoker's notes while writing Dracula.

Like the popular television show of the late nineteen ninety's Buffy the Vampire Slayer, when Dracula has a person drink his own blood, there is a powerful connection. In Buffy, the mortal then is spared his death and become a vampire upon awakening. In Dracula, Mina, who is forced to drink Dracula's blood, actually becomes telepathically linked to Dracula. The link ends up adding suspense to the book, but as to not ruin any surprises, I will not tell where this leads.

Photo of Elisabeth Bathory

Elisabeth, also spelled Elizabeth, was infamous for drinking the blood of over two hundred woman, which sparked vampire rumors.

Elisabeth, also spelled Elizabeth, was infamous for drinking the blood of over two hundred woman, which sparked vampire rumors.

Elizabeth Bathory: Countess of Transylvania

Elizabeth Bathory is not only from the infamous Transylvania, but she was believed to have drunk the blood of her victims, which include over 200 women. She first began her obsessions in lesbian orgies and black magic, but soon found herself enjoying killing women, by binding them then biting their necks, cheeks, and shoulders and yanking off the skin.

Supposedly, she was very vain, as she was stunning. As she began to age, she became very upset about the wrinkles. One day when getting angry at a servant, she struck her so violently that the blood from the servant's nose splashed on Elizabeth's face. She glanced at herself in the mirror and felt that where the blood had landed on her skin appeared more youthful. So she began demanding the murder of virgin women, then pooled their blood in a bath where she would bathe in their blood, hoping to regain her youthful radiance.

She was later confined in a room as punishment for her wicked deeds. Her servants passed food to her, and she was never to leave the confines of her room. Those who assisted her were tried for witchcraft, vampirism, and then beheaded; she, however, was not beheaded because of her noble blood.

Vampire Obsession

As Dracula is only one of the first books written on the subject, this fad will not die anytime soon. For now, we will rush to the movie theater to watch Edward seduce a mortal, or watch the hit television show Vampire Diaries, or read the countless books that inspired these. This obsession of vampires may die out briefly just as the Harry Potter fad has dwindled slightly, but eventually, another great writer or filmmaker will read one of the old stories and become inspired to return to a legend that is as old as storytelling.

Sources

© 2010 Angela Michelle Schultz

Comments

No name on April 22, 2020:

Do you think there is a small probabilty that vampires havr evolved as they are presented in modern movies ?

KatrinaV on October 09, 2014:

Very good. the comments are rather funny from the wolves at least, lol. research some on Greek mythology and creation of vampires. there are several theories from religion and folklore. yet again, nice job.

lisa on July 15, 2012:

In Trinidad we have a folklore of women that can shed their skin to become a ball of fire so that they can enter homes and suck the blood of women. They never suck from the neck or from males.

wolf person on April 20, 2012:

i know just warning the vamps if they kill innocent people i will kill them.

Angela Michelle Schultz (author) from United States on April 20, 2012:

So not all vampires feast on people?

wolf person on April 19, 2012:

enosh. not gonna hunt you it's a different vamp. not unless you feast on innocent people like the one that im hunting then i'll hunt you down if your feasting on innocent people.

Angela Michelle Schultz (author) from United States on April 19, 2012:

Ahhh, so now I have a vampire and a werewolf on here.

enosh on April 18, 2012:

i like this because im.................................................vamp

wolf person on April 18, 2012:

p.s. just beware cause there is a vampire here in the .usa. and he aint friendly he is goin around sucking blood which when he comes to where i live on a fullmoon i'll kill'em in werewolf form. and a friend said that there was somewhere just don't know where at.

Angela Michelle Schultz (author) from United States on April 18, 2012:

Thank you for the great compliment. That's very true about the transformation. Vampires are not nearly as scary as they were twenty years ago. Now they are more of a sex symbol, as everything else in our culture.

Lisa from WA on April 18, 2012:

This is a very well written and informative hub. I've always been fascinated by the vampire and not only its origins but also how it has transformed in the media since the beginning of its history.

wolf person on April 06, 2012:

tell them if they have a problem with you to stop cause if i were up there i would ask them to stop then if they continued i would transform tomorrow to take care of business.

KC on April 06, 2012:

The boy who saids that he is a vampire hangs in our group and Callam hates Elliot. Oh and last year I was talking to Elliot and Erick to. :/

This is what they said to me.

Erick: We are wolves though

Anyone who’s disbelieves should see the truth

Elliot: Have you heard the story of the girl who didn’t cry wolf?

Me: Okay then show me, ps why would I cry wolf?

Elliot: Because… There’s wolves In your school.

And if you don’t believe it… You’ll find out the hard way one day.

Me: Nah I pretty sure I won’t.

And I think your game is going to far, thinking your wolves. Lolz

I will only believe uses if you say that your wolves to me, face to face. I still think that this is a game

Elliot: I will say it to your face, next time I see you

WHAT ELLIOT SAID TO ME BECAUSE I STILL DIDN”T BELIEVE THEM ( this all happen last year on the last week of school)

F*** OFF… WE ARE WOLVES. WE’VE TOLD YOU.

WE WILL HUNT YOU THE F*** DOWN.. AND SHOW YOU HOW F***ING WOLF WE ARE, WHEN YOU ARE HOMDING YOUR STOMACH IN ONE HAND, AND YOUR PANCREAS IN THE OTHER,

YOU HAVE NEVER SEEN US WOLF BECAUSE WE USUALT GO TO VENEZUALA TO DO OUT BUSINESS BECAUSE IF WE GOT OUT THE LOCALS PEOPLE WOULD KNOW,

OUR BIGGEST WEAPON AGAINST SOCIETY IS THAT PEOPLE LIKE YOU DON'T BELIEVE US, AND BY MAKING IT SO OBVIOUS PEOPLE BELIEVE US LESS BUT YOU WANT PROOF. YOU’LL GET PROOF WHEN THERE’S CLAW MARKS ALL OVER YOUR HOUSE.,,

GET OUT NOW

wolf person on April 06, 2012:

and kc how to tell is by instincts

wolf person on April 06, 2012:

yeah why you don't feel safe is the wolves but vampire is fake in there group cause vampires are naturally enemies of the werewolf and the witch is fake

KC on April 06, 2012:

wolf person: Yer thank you. How can you tell if someone is an evil werewolf? I just don't feel safe whenever I see them. First time I seen elliot was when my friend was calling us over because she liked him and Elliot was push ups on the table with one hand. I had a bad feeling so I said I knw who is hotter then him then I walked off.

wolf person on April 06, 2012:

don't have to worry about me dude only evil werewolves hunt you down. i was listing that cause you never know if there the evil one's or not

KC on April 06, 2012:

wolf person: I don't like the first one. :( lol Oh and on the drama play there with be nearly a fullmoon and we have to set everything at side. :( Yay that night is going to be fun. Not :/

wolf person on April 06, 2012:

1 kc. probably hunt you down or they will beat the living crap out of you. 2. they will probably forgive which. im a forgiving type.

KC on April 06, 2012:

What would happen if you made someone mad who saids they are werewolves and vampires? What could they do if they was telling the truth and you got them mad?

Angela Michelle Schultz (author) from United States on April 06, 2012:

Honestly, I don't know enough about werewolves to even know what to ask. :)

wolf person on April 06, 2012:

is there more questions cause i would be pleased to answer them

wolf person on April 06, 2012:

plus i only remember bit's and pieces of my transformation but i know i can control it

wolf person on April 06, 2012:

cause i know cause i do a lot of research plus i read some of the bible

Angela Michelle Schultz (author) from United States on April 06, 2012:

Did God create Satan? and how do you know it was 9/11

wolf person on April 06, 2012:

they were the two creators but satan betrayed god on 9/11 and satan was sent to hell for 3000 years and was chained up and jesus is the son of god

Angela Michelle Schultz (author) from United States on April 06, 2012:

Do you believe He created this world? Do you believe that there is only one god? Do you believe that Jesus was the son of God. What relationship does Lucipher have to God?