The Flat-Earth Fallacy

Updated on June 30, 2020
DurhamStokie profile image

I write about things I find interesting, and although I am not an expert, I have fun learning as I research. I hope you like the results!

Terry Pratchett's Discworld: Carried on the back of four elephants which in turn stand on the back of the turtle known as the Great A'tuin.
Terry Pratchett's Discworld: Carried on the back of four elephants which in turn stand on the back of the turtle known as the Great A'tuin.

When Fantasy and Science Collide

Terry Pratchett and his Discworld series of novels may seem like a fantasy to most of us, but to some, the vision of a flat disc-like world is a reality…

Incredibly, right now in the 21st Century, there is a growing surge in popularity for the belief that the Earth is flat. Once dismissed as irrational fools that would eventually go away, they are now starting to fight back with ever-increasing complexity in their arguments to support their misguided conviction.

They say that society has been misled by government conspiracy into believing that the Earth is a globe, although the reasons for why such a conspiracy would be needed are a little less clear. The most common hypothesis put forward seems to be that it is in order to continue faking space travel and embezzle the funds left over.

Think about it for a moment… how many people would need to be in on this cover-up?

Pilots, astronauts, governments, Elon Musk and his SpaceX Company and all its employees, meteorologists and the whole scientific community would need to be collaborating on this, not to mention most of their family members.

The Russian Roscomos Space Agency and America’s NASA, have apparently been so successful in fooling society that the Earth is round that China, Europe and India have started their own space programs, and have joined in on the conspiracy.

You couldn’t make it up. Well luckily, you don’t have to because the Flat Earth Society has done it all for you. You can visit this website here and gaze at it in awe, possibly in much the same way as you would watch a chimp’s tea party, or watch me attempting to dance gracefully.

The edge of the world?
The edge of the world?

Trolls or Genuine?

After initially discovering this ever-growing community of the Flat Earth Theory on social media, I assumed they were just another version of online trolls. It wasn’t until I read some of the comments that I realised they genuinely believed what they were saying, although I am sure some of them are just doing it to amuse themselves and laugh at the outraged replies to their comments.

It’s almost like coming across a fully grown man who believes in Santa Claus and who has managed to make a rationale for every law of physics such a mythical character would need to break in order to deliver on his role.

Celebrities are starting to be rolled out by the Flat Earth Society too.

Shaquille O’Neal, the former NBA basketball star, and B.O.B., whose real name is Bobby Ray Simmons Jr a rap artist, are two of the most well-known of these. Rumours originating from a spoof website that President Donald Trump is a proponent are false, however.

So, enough of my incredulity, let’s have a look at some of the claims that ‘prove’ the Earth is a flat disc and not a globe at all…

The Claims

  • Gravity is a lie.
  • There is no curvature of the horizon.
  • Satellites are a hoax and photographs of the Earth are photo-shopped, whilst Computer Generated Imagery is used to create videos of the planet’s global look.
  • Water would fall off the planet’s surface if we are spinning on a globe.
  • Space agencies are in reality using their huge budget to control missiles from space.
  • The Arctic Circle is the centre of the disc and Antarctica is a 150-foot high wall of ice at the outer rim of the disc.
  • NASA employees guard the rim.
  • The sun and the moon are spheres (!) that move in circular motions 3,000 miles above the Earth, creating night and day.
  • Albert Einstein was a fraud.
  • An ‘Anti-moon’ causes eclipses

Ok, I'm calm again...
Ok, I'm calm again...

Let’s Break Down Some of These Outrageous Claims


Wow, where do we start with this one? What is holding the planet up if the gravitational pull of other celestial bodies is a lie? Four elephants and a turtle named the Great A’Tuin?

If you drop a hammer on your foot is that not painful proof enough? Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation can help us predict the speed the hammer will fall, its rate of acceleration before landing, how long it will take to hit the floor, and how much energy it will take to pick the hammer back up. This is a law of physics, meaning it is unlikely to ever change.

To examine ‘why’ the hammer falls we use Einstein’s Theory of Relativity. Whilst this is not a law—which means it is subject to potential change—it has been tested numerous times by scientific peers and found to hold true in all circumstances.

The hammer will increase in speed as it falls until it reaches what is known as terminal velocity. This is when the weight of the object and the Earth’s gravitational pull are counteracted by the upward force of air pressure (drag) and the two forces reach a balance.

Another thing to note is that due to gravitational forces, mass attracts mass and the logical outcome of this is a spherical shape for planets.

On the moon, there is no air resistance, just gravity, and astronaut David Scott did a famous lunar experiment using a hammer and a feather which you can see below.

Curvature of the Earth

The Earth is not a perfect sphere, so the radius from the centre of the planet differs slightly depending on whether you go from the centre to the poles, or to the equator where it is slightly wider. However, it averages out at around 3,960 miles from the centre to the surface. This equates to a curvature ratio of around eight inches per square mile.

The distances one can see before the horizon dips below the field of vision depends entirely upon the height of the observer. To a person with a height of six feet, the horizon is approximately three miles away on a completely flat surface.

To see this curvature properly we need to go to a height of around 35,000 feet. Which means on a typical passenger jet aircraft you would be able to see the Earth’s curvature, on the condition that you have a large enough field of view and there are no clouds obscuring your view.

Another great way to see this curvature for yourself is to stand with a pair of binoculars at the coast and watch a ship disappear over the horizon. You will see that the hull of the ship disappears before the masts. This simple observation was used by the Ancient Greeks to figure out that the Earth was indeed round and yet here we are in the 21st Century trying to convince a ‘more educated’ population that the Earth isn’t flat.

Quite depressing isn't it?

The video below is an excellent example to insert here. It highlights the two subjects mentioned above: Gravity and the Earth’s curvature, as well as the bravery and intelligence of our species in pushing ourselves to new limits.

Satellites Are a Hoax


Big businesses pay millions of pounds for satellites to be launched and used. We use satellites for TV broadcasts, telecommunications, GPS systems and government agencies use them for defence. They are used by military observers to study the movements of foreign armies and missile placement in other countries.

If you have any doubt, simply go to Google Earth and use their satellite imagery to zoom all the way down to your own house and back up into space again – take as much time as you need to convince yourself…

As for photographs and satellite images being faked, the very existence of satellites negates this argument. Once costly satellites are proved to be real, then is it so hard to believe that satellite images are real too?

One of the most famous images used by Flat-Earth believers is the one created by Robert Simmon, who works for the Earth Science Imagery Division of NASA. The photograph was used on the iPhone home screen and is familiar to millions. He readily admits that Photoshop was used to create the final image.

Now let's explain why this is so.

As satellites orbit the Earth taking their images, due to the slightly elliptical shape of the globe, each orbit means a small wedge of the photograph is missing and someone has to put these together to make a complete picture. This is the job of experts like Robert and the final picture involves a bit of manipulation. This does not make them fake. Think of it more as editing a newspaper article to make it more readable.

If you remember the Mars Rover on the surface of the Red Planet, the same technique was used to piece together the pictures it sent back to create a fuller picture of the landscape.

You could also read this link which tells how satellite imagery has been used to expose a housing fraud by a Mexican company listed on the New York Stock Exchange. You can read the details about this story in more depth here: Mexican Real Estate Scam

Satellites are also used by meteorologists to warn of severe storms approaching land.

Another oxymoron amongst Flat Earth theorists is that a large number of them believe in global warming and climate change. The irony of this is quite staggering when you consider a lot of the knowledge on this is gained from satellite images.

Satellites like this are merely a hoax in the eyes of a Flat Earther.
Satellites like this are merely a hoax in the eyes of a Flat Earther.

Water Should Fall off If We Are on a Spinning Sphere

It really shouldn’t need saying that water is subject to the same gravitational forces as everything else, including light and time. However, once you have decided gravity is a lie, then I guess it becomes harder.

The Earth has a greater mass than that of water and therefore the Earth’s gravity keeps the water attracted to the surface, although the gravitational pull of the moon does cause the tides to wax and wane.

If we are on a flat planet that is not revolving on its axis and subject to gravitational pull, maybe someone can explain how the oceans and seas – even some lakes and rivers—have tides if it’s not the moon's gravitational pull?

If the Earth didn’t have its own stronger gravitational pull, then indeed the water would fall off the surface.

Thank goodness Isaac Newton wasn’t a fraud.

Water is held onto the planet's surface by Earth's gravitational pull.
Water is held onto the planet's surface by Earth's gravitational pull.
Some claim that NASA squanders their budget in order to control space with missiles and maintain the ‘Globe Conspiracy’ and that NASA staff guard Antarctica
Some claim that NASA squanders their budget in order to control space with missiles and maintain the ‘Globe Conspiracy’ and that NASA staff guard Antarctica

Geography of the Flat Earth

The Arctic circle is the centre of the Earth and Antarctica is the outer rim—night and day cycles.

We can combine both of these claims and refute both with the same answer.

It’s an interesting claim to make when you consider the Flat Earth model of the sun and the moon is a lot smaller than we have been taught and that they circle above the Earth creating day and night.

If that was so, maybe someone from amongst their number could explain why both Antarctica in the Southern Hemisphere and countries within the Arctic Circle in the Northern Hemisphere, experience 24 hour days and nights while the rest of the planet gets normal seasonal hours of each?

How can that possibly happen when the sun and the moon are moving in a circle around a Flat Earth?

Moving swiftly on…

Modern Map of the 'Flat' Earth
Modern Map of the 'Flat' Earth

Albert Einstein Is a Fraud?

The only reason they claim this is because of his pesky scientific facts that destroy the claims of the Flat Earth Theory. All that talk of gravity, mass, energy, special relativity and e=mc2 stuff has to be written off as fraudulent just like satellites and NASA’s true intentions for their theory to work. This is the only reason the genius of Einstein is dismissed.

There is a coinciding theory of Einstein being a plagiarist on the internet which I’m sure has been hungrily ingested by Flat Earthers too. However, there is absolutely no evidence to substantiate it. It may be true that his wife had a bearing on the writing of this piece of work due to the paper being a lot easier to read than his other published work, but to call him a fraud is plainly ridiculous and an insult to one of the world’s greatest ever scientific minds

A lot of scientists were working on similar ideas to Einstein at the time and no doubt each other’s ideas would be heard of by their peers. However, it was Einstein who pieced everything together to give us his remarkable insight into the Theory of Relativity that still bears so much importance to science over 100 years later.

The genius that was Albert Einstein.
The genius that was Albert Einstein.


They have absolutely no evidence to back up this claim other than it ‘has to exist’ in order to make their world model work. They also don't mention how solar eclipses would work, other than my own assumption that there must be an Anti-Sun too?

We know in their minds that it cannot be the moon coming between us and the sun because the moon and the sun are in a permanently opposite field of the trajectory using the Flat Earth model of the solar system.

Either way, it seems patently absurd to accept this claim and to ridicule every other scientific explanation. Presumably, all the ancient civilisations that have studied the stars and celestial bodies have all just happened to miss out on discovering this anti-moon?

Lunar and solar eclipses are predictable, so surely the path of this mysterious celestial body could be charted and therefore become predictable too?

If it existed it would block out certain parts of the night sky and other celestial bodies too.

For more about eclipses, visit the NASA website here.

A little more difficult for Flat Earthers to explain unless there is an Anti-Sun too?
A little more difficult for Flat Earthers to explain unless there is an Anti-Sun too?


To sum up, each and every claim they make is easily refuted and the only answer they have in return is to say scientific evidence is a hoax.

They don't embrace science to substantiate their claims, they merely compare scientists to medieval court magicians, shaping the worldview to suit their own agenda, whatever that may be.

I hope this worrying trend in the belief of a 'Flat Earth' doesn't continue to grow, simply because it marks a regression in our advancement as a species and hampers scientists who are trying to make further breakthroughs.

Although the rumour about Mr Trump being a Flat Earther was not true, imagine one day having a president of the largest superpower on this global planet who has been brought up to sincerely believe this ludicrous theory to be true... scary thought.

This article is accurate and true to the best of the author’s knowledge. Content is for informational or entertainment purposes only and does not substitute for personal counsel or professional advice in business, financial, legal, or technical matters.

© 2018 Ian


    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment
    • DurhamStokie profile imageAUTHOR


      2 months ago from Durham

      I agree with you DarthDominus81, as does my article

    • profile image


      2 months ago

      The earth is ROUND.

      If the earth were flat, then there would be no horizon; there would be no sun rising or setting "in the distance" because that "wall" dividing night from day time on opposite sides of the world would not exist.

      NASA supports the ludicrous flat earth lie; in Hebrew, "nasa" means "deception; to deceive".


      ALSO, when people are flying in airplanes and other aircraft, THEY STILL SEE THE HORIZON: that barrier dividing OUR location from any location elsewhere that is "as far as the eyes can see".

      This is no opinion, no theory; it is fact with physical evidence that anyone whose eyes are able to see, will realize.

    • DurhamStokie profile imageAUTHOR


      16 months ago from Durham

      As it is your will to believe.

      Thank you for your input.

      Comments are always welcome to my articles whether you agree with what's written or hold a different view :)

    • North Wind profile image

      North Wind 

      16 months ago from The World (for now)

      I have heard that there are religious and non-religious people who believe in it.

      I wouldn't be too worried about religious schools teaching it before secular ones do. Tolerance is the motto of this generation, after all.

      It is your will to choose not to believe in a higher power but as for me, I cannot deny Him.

      Thanks for an interesting read.

    • DurhamStokie profile imageAUTHOR


      16 months ago from Durham

      It is indeed a disturbing trend that people not only believe this but try to convince others of it through tying it with religious belief (another thing I don't believe in by the way)

      It is to be hoped that schools with religious affiliations around the world don't adopt this and start to miseducate future generations as that would be a travesty

    • North Wind profile image

      North Wind 

      16 months ago from The World (for now)

      I personally know some people who stand firmly on the flat earth belief and tie it in with the Bible. They act like the truth of God hangs upon this belief and that you are not truly Christian unless this has been 'revealed' to you. I have known these people to say things like interracial marriage is against God etc. so I should not have been as surprised as I was but still...

      If I described it as disturbing I think that would be an understatement.


    This website uses cookies

    As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

    For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at:

    Show Details
    HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
    LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
    Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
    AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
    Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
    CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the or domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
    Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
    Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
    Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
    Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)
    ClickscoThis is a data management platform studying reader behavior (Privacy Policy)