Dean Traylor is a freelance writer and teacher who writes about various subjects, including education and creative writing.
A Legend Emerges From the Forest
Madagascar’s interior is as primitive as it gets. Despite a growing population, much of the island nation’s interior is devoid of human presence. As a result, it is a giant, contiguous rain forest that has remained untouched for many centuries.
It is no surprise that something is rumored to lurk in these foreboding regions. For those that occupy the outer fringes of the forest, that something has become the stuff of legend—as well as a source of nightmares.
Some call them the little men of the forests; others call them demons. In either case, the cryptid called "Kalanoro of Madagascar" has proven to be an enduring legend.
Evidence for its existence is scant. Mostly, it's based on eye-witness accounts retold in publications. Still, tales of this beast spread quickly and beyond the shores of Madagascar.
Additionally, the Internet has bolstered this ancient legend. A quick scroll down any search engine, one will find voluminous entries on the Kalanoro. These entries include accounts from cryptozoologists, bloggers, and paranormal investigators claiming to have proof its existence.
While not exactly a household name as its purported cryptid cousin (Bigfoot), the Kalanoros have been the subject of widely circulated stories on nearly every form of media. This includes an episode of the Sy-Fy Channel show Destination Truth.
In other words, the Kalanoros are branching out into the wild world of World Wide Web and cable TV.
Origin of the Kalanoro
To understand how the Kalanoros went from being mythological creatures to an Internet sensation, one has to look where the legend began. Madagascar is one of the largest islands in the world. It is also one of the least explored and developed regions still in existence. With thick virgin forests, caves, and inaccessible terrain, the island nation boasts a thriving and unhindered wild-life.
The island is also home to a unique primate, the lemurs. These arboreal and nocturnal animals are small and often heard rather than seen (In fact, they were named the “lemurs” of Roman mythology due to their mysterious looks and foreboding vocalization).
Although looking more like raccoons than primates, they have nails instead of claws, may walk on two at times, and use tools. Still, unlike most primates (with the exception of basal primates), some species have large eyes and wet noses.
The lemurs were first discovered in 17th century. However, it wasn’t until the 1950s and '60s that the primates were studied. Since that time, nearly 100 species have been discovered, including some as recently as the 1990s.
To make matters more interesting—and something to consider in the case of the Kalanoro—evidence has emerged that some of the earliest and extinct species of lemurs were as large as modern gorilla. A lemur species this size may have been around as far back as 2000 years when human started inhabiting the island. There are some researchers, including cryptozoologists, who believe a large species of lemurs may still exist. Many surmise that Kalanoros are variant of this unknown species.
Whether there is a connection between the lemurs and Kalanoros is speculation at best. What is known is that the first people to arrive on the island began telling tales of little hairy men living in the jungles.
The late 19th century was considered the first time when the Kalanoros were brought to the world’s attention (at least, according to several websites).
One questionable website, From-the-Shadows, reported that the Royal Geographical Society supposedly captured one in 1889. It also reported that the creature was “telepathic” (The account, according to this blog, came from another site, travelafricamag.com).
Writer Mark Eveleigh expanded on this claim in an article for the website Travel Intelligence; however, he stated that someone had reported capturing it to the geological society.
The Kalanoro was a possible descendent of the Hadropithecus, a large extinct lemur that once inhabited the island."
Eveleigh's reporting is most substantiating. In the an article entitled: “Mythical Creatures of Madagascar,” he suggested the account may not have happened.
Additionally, Eveleigh wrote: “In 1924, Chase Salmon Osborn described a "kalanoro-sighting" that he assumed ‘must have been a honeymoon couple’ because they were making love by a campfire.”
In another account in the article, he told of an eye-witness account from Eloi Razafimandimby. Eveleigh wrote that Eloi had spotted what he described as a “little man, less than a meter tall, with hair all over his body and long fingernails.” This accusation that would be repeated in other websites and forums (interestingly Eloi may not be directly named on these sites; however, he was believed to be referred to in these accounts as a “startled guide").
Another blog, ShukerNature—created by Dr. Karl Shuker, a freelance zoological and media consultant and cryptozoologist—wrote an entry that told of G. Herbert Smith, who collected accounts of the Kalanoro and documented them in an 1886 publication of Antanarivo Annual (to note: G. Herbert Smith collected superstitions and folklore from the Betsimisiraka, one of several ethnic groups found on the island).
Shuker, himself, speculated—by using unrelated studies made by French paleontologist Charles Lamberton—that the Kalanoro was a possible descendant of the Hadropithecus, a large extinct lemur that once inhabited the island. Still, the evidence for this was (and still is) sketchy, at best.
Internet and Mass Media Show Interest in Kalanoro
The most significant alleged sighting came from a story circulated on the Internet. The story stated that a U.S. Navy SEAL team came across a group of 13 “chimpanzee-like” creatures attacking another animal in an African jungle far from Madagascar.
The story claims that the team was in the midst of doing covert intelligence-gathering work in the Democratic Republic of the Congo between 1997 and 2002. A team member video-taped the attack, and supposedly leaked the story to the public.
The story was reported by noted cryptozoologist and Bigfoot hunter, Loren Coleman for the website, Cryptomundo. Although it was uncertain this was the very first site to report this account, other blogs and forms—including one operated by the popular paranormal writer and conspiracy theorist David Ickes—have posted Coleman’s story on their site.
The most compelling part of the report was the description given of the creatures. They were described as being bipedal, standing 4.5 to 5 feet tall, and covered with gray hair. Also, the description stated they had “porcupine-like quills running the length of their backs (similar to the Latin American legend, the chupacabras).”
Verification of this article has proven to be impossible. The article claimed three minutes of video existed; however, the tape supposedly remains classified by the U.S. government to this day due to the sensitive nature of the original mission.
In addition, the known information of the story are vague. Names and number of participants are not known and the exact location changes from one publication to another.
Still, there was enough information in the story to garner attention from other media outlets. In 2007, the popular American TV show, Destination Truth did a segment on the Kalanoro. The show, which attempted to explore the truth behind mysterious creatures and monsters, didn’t provide enough evidence to dismiss or verify the existence of the Kalanoro.
So, Do They Exist?
There is some plausibility to the possible existence of the creatures. They supposedly dwell in an area still unexplored. Also, their size, between 3 to 5 feet tall, suggests they can live in small areas and have plenty of places to hide.
Despite the plausibility, the evidence presented so far has been weak. With the exception of a Harry Trumbore illustration of the Kalanaro from Loren Coleman’s book The Field Guide to Bigfoot and Other Mystery Primates, there’s no viable or clear picture of them.
Another major problem to authenticate the Kalanoro is the "science" and researchers associated with it. Cryptozoology—the study of animals that have not been discovered—is a controversial field of study. Usually, legendary or mythical animals such as Bigfoot, Chupacabra, Loc Ness Monster, and the Yeti are popular subjects.
Many professionals and academics refer to it as pseudoscience and is not seriously taken as a reputable (or existing) branch of science. Most, if not all, accredited universities around the world do not offer this a degree.
In addition, a majority of those who call themselves cryptozoologists do not hold a science-based degree (however, there are some cases where they may hold degrees in other fields of science, but rarely have advanced degrees such as a Ph.d).
Why does the definition of cryptozoology matter in this case? Simply put, those that have conducted any study or research came from this field of study. In addition, some people, such a G. Herbert, were not scientists, at all. Instead, they may have been folklorists or anthropologist who were interested in Kalanoro as a part Madagascar folklore.
In many respects, Kalanoros may be misidentified lemurs. Much of the evidence suggest that. However, there is a remote chance that this mysterious creature may exist.
Madagascar's wilderness has been giving up its secrets. Discoveries of new, large species have been made as far back as the late 20th century. In addition, many large primate known today were discovered within the last 100 years.
If anything, the kalanoros will remain a mystery unless hard proof of their existence surfaces. Still, these cryptids are capturing the imagination of many.
This content is accurate and true to the best of the author’s knowledge and is not meant to substitute for formal and individualized advice from a qualified professional.
© 2014 Dean Traylor