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Ancient Mysteries: Puma Punku in Tiahuanaco, Bolivia

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David is a blogger from the Chicagoland area. They enjoy researching ancient mysteries around the world.

The Ancient Structures at Tiahuanaco

The Ancient Structures at Tiahuanaco

The Ancient Structures at Tiahuanaco

They are arguably the oldest and most baffling ruins on the face of the Earth. It is hard to imagine how they did not come to be known as one of the wonders of the world like the Great Pyramid of Giza which, although spectacular, pale in comparison to the ruins of Puma Punku in Tiahuanaco, South America.

The ruins of Puma Punku are one of four structures in the ancient city of Tiahuanaco. The other three structures are the Akapana Pyramid, the Kalasasaya Platform, and the Subterranean Temple. Even with modern-day technology and information, these structures defy logic and confound those who seek to solve the mysteries that lie within them.

The ruins of Puma Punku are said to be the most fascinating, and most confusing of all:

  • Who built these structures?
  • How were these structures built?
  • Why were these structures built?

These are all questions on the minds of those researching these ancient structures, and they are not easily answerable, if they can even be answered at all.

Puma Punku

Puma Punku

Puma Punku

If pyramids were almost superhumanly difficult to create several thousand years ago, then how much more difficult would it have been to build Puma Punku?

Puma Punku is believed to have once contained a great wharf and a massive four-part structure. Yet all that remains today are megalithic ruins from some cataclysmic events in history. A great earthquake? A comet that came too close to the Earth? A worldwide flood? These are all possible causes of the destruction of the once great structure that is now the ruins of Puma Punku.

Not only is there evidence to support the claim of a cataclysmic flood, but there is even evidence to support the theory that people once lived there before such a flood even occurred. The suspected flood could have happened somewhere around 12,000 years ago, and there is scientific evidence of tools, bones, and other material within flood alluvia, which suggests that a civilized people were there prior to any flood. Other evidence, including carvings of bearded people that are not Andean, has been recorded throughout the area.

Could the ruins of Puma Punku be evidence of a long-lost civilization?

What Makes the Ruins Unique?

What Makes the Ruins Unique?


What Makes the Puma Punku Ruins Unique?

It is highly unlikely that any of the stones in Puma Punku were cut using ancient stone-cutting techniques, at least not those that we are aware of.

The stones in Puma Punku are made up of granite and diorite, and the only stone that is harder than those two is the diamond. If the people who built this place cut these stones using stone cutting techniques, then they would have to had used diamond tools.

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If they didn't use diamonds to cut these stones, then what did they use?

Not only were these stones really hard to cut, but they are also extremely heavy. One of these stone ruins weighs in at about 800 tons! These are big stones, and they are really heavy. The nearest quarry is at least 10 miles away from the site of the ruins. How in the world did these people move these blocks that weighed many tons, and how were they able to form a structure with them?

With the technology that we currently have today, it would be extremely difficult to recreate the site of these ruins, if possible at all. If we can't do it, then how did these ancient people accomplish this task? This could have taken place anywhere from 500 b.c. all the way back to the Ice Age.

These ancient people had to have been very sophisticated, knowing astronomy, geomancy, and mathematics. However, there are no records of this work. To build a place like Puma Punku, there must have been significant planning, and writing involved, but there is no record of any of this.

Interlocking Stones

There is one more significant thing to mention regarding the ruins of Puma Punku. Not only were these stones cut somehow, but they were finely cut. The cuts on these stones are perfectly straight. The holes cored into these stones are perfect, and all of equal depth.

How is it that these ancient people were able to cut stones like this?

It is as if only master builders were allowed to come in and construct Puma Punku. All of the blocks are cut so that they interlock, and fit together like a puzzle. There is no mortar. There are only great stones that once fit together creating a structure some four levels high.

If these people could have moved these large stones to this precise location, then obviously they also had a way to place them one on top of another, but how in the world was this accomplished?

There are no trees in the area, the nearest quarry is at least 10 miles away, and we have no records as to how any of this could have been done. As far as most are concerned, there is no way that the Andean people could have done this 2500 years ago. If they couldn't have done it, how is it possible that an even older group of people accomplished it?

Who Built Puma Punku?

The simple answer: We have absolutely no idea who did all this, or even how they could have done it. There have been a few suggestions, but as you can imagine, they are widely criticized for the most part.

One suggestion has been made that there had to have been some kind of ancient aliens who interceded on humanity's behalf, and our ancestors learned how to do all of this from them.

There are actual records of mythical origin, regarding gods and the part that they took in the creation of these places. Not sure how we have certain mythical records, yet no records of plans or writing that contributed to the creation of these places?

Another suggestion is that a cataclysmic event such as a flood wiped out these ancient peoples along with any records they may have kept. There is some evidence to support this suggestion. Perhaps these ancient people were technologically advanced at some point, and all but a few were wiped out by a major flood. The remnant would have had to start civilization all over again, and of course, the ancient records would be lost.

These may be stretches of the imagination, but places like Puma Punku were constructed somehow, and if it would be very difficult for us today to build a place like Puma Punku, then how did these ancient people accomplish it?

Did they have advanced technology similar to ours, and then die off?

Maps have been found that would seem to support this theory. Maps such as the Piri Reis (1513), and the Oronteus Finaeus (1531), have been found that pre-date European discoveries. Not only are these maps precise, but they seem to claim that they are copies from even older maps.

These maps show the coastline of South America, rivers, and even part of Antarctica which was not thought to have been mapped until 1818. These maps contain landmarks, as well as depictions of the areas which appear to be very accurate. Some people don't believe that these maps could have been made without flying over these areas in the sky.

Just how much did these ancient people know, and what were they able to do?

The Bible records a worldwide flood that killed off everyone except for Noah, and his family. Some legends claim that there have been a total of four cataclysmic events that have wiped out the majority of the world's population thus far.

Is this what happened to these ancient people who built Puma Punku?

To this day, it remains an ancient mystery.

Sources include Mystic Places, as well as Ancient Aliens on the History Channel


Fred. on July 14, 2019:

The most logical explanation is, hearth has being colonized from superiorly space individual. In this intervention the intelligent human was genetically brought to be . The present mistery of the mstodontic old constructions, is , therefore, logically explained.

david on December 30, 2018:

An interesting thing in regards to it being a seaport...

Lake Titicaca is the only place in the world with freshwater seahorses.....

Scott on October 10, 2018:

Puma Punku does indeed look like a usable seaport. The issue with this is, it is several thousand feet above the water. Does this mean Puma Punku was at sea level when it was built? I see no other logical explanation for it. The question then becomes, how did it rise up so high since the structures were built? Was there a cataclysmic event that drove the land up so much? If so, what caused it? Did the event occur while the area was inhabited or did it happen afterward? Was the event the reason all of the inhabitants left or were killed? Until these questions can be answered, all we are left with is a huge mystery.

zolar on October 07, 2018:

It just looks so Industrial, the same with Gizeh, so functional, no need to make it look pretty, no need to honour the maker in stone or writing, not religious or mystic at all, like a factory plant. And it looks so utterly destroyed, bombarded almost, in the damage you see another link with the valley temple and the osirion in egypt, also so utterly destroyed; if it was deliberately destroyed, those guys must have been really pissed, the why of the construction is as mysterious as the why of the destruction.

Terry S. Kirchman on June 11, 2018:

Ok - So I’ve read a lot of the posts and nobody has a logical answer - My theory is possibly dinosaurs could have been trained to move the huge stones or maybe there was ice after all it is a very high altitude area as there are no trees

Robert Welton on May 15, 2018:

If the Great Library at Alexandria had not been burned, I believe many of these mysteries would not exist. Our species as it exists today, has been around almost 300,000 years. That's a VERY long time to be scratching in the dirt without achieving anything.

Wolfgang Pendragon on April 28, 2018:

It is very possible that the human race was as advanced or perhaps even more advanced than we are today but that knowledge was all but wiped out at the end of the last ice age & over the next 10.000 years the rest was destroyed by whatever new religions appeared . After all just look at what happened when the Spanish arrived in what is now central & south America they set about destroying as many of the ancient books & writings as they could find because they claimed they were heretical to the teachings of the catholic church . The few books that have survived from the Aztecs & Mayans have indicated that the Aztecs & Mayans in some ways were as advanced & knowledgeable as we are today

that dewd on March 22, 2018:

great page. Lots of good stuff here. Ain't buying the ET stuff....where did the ETs come from or learn???? pushing it back a step is like Hoagland screaming about Mars all the time. Ok, Dick, life came from Mars....HOW DID IT ORIGINATE ON MARS? These megaliths are blowing my mind....I did construction/demo for over 20 years, just blows my mind, and it's often the small perfections and precisions...I'd love to know who this elder race was....but I'm glad they left some stuff for us to find....we won't, everything is plastic and cardboard. There is a such a DELIBERATE intricacy put into the main wall wasn't just a was a statement, "see what we do, be amazed".

Eddie on February 03, 2018:

Excellent Video ,, I saw more there then Ever before ,,

Thank You Very Much ,, Eddie

Mikey-Da-P on July 25, 2017:

I do believe we, in the modern world, can re-create what has been built here using modern tools. It certainly would not be easy. As a carpenter and woodworker myself, using just wood material it would not be easy. These blocks and such were made from hard stone. Now, back in the ancient days, could it be possible with their archaic tools and templates? I say it could be done, but with such flawlessness? It could be. Take a long wire and dip it in cement and then diamond dust, or even diorite. A standard back and forth motion will give you a straight line even at a certain depth. Make a thin wood dowel and dip it in the same cement substance and drill holes along that straight line. SOLVED! If you do look at some of the "route-outs" on some Puma Punku pics, you CAN see flaws in some of the chisel-outs. Also, these stones could have been "grinded" to get the angles needed. I say these stones are man-made, although someone went to great lengths to produce such perfection.

It still doesn't answer how these stones got there. Some suggest reed boats up the river. It is possible. It doesn't have to be felled trees, it could have been cylinders carved from the same stone used in the project. Looking at the quarry where they were taken from, many of these stones could have been tooled at the place they got them, making them smaller and easy to transport.

All in all, we may NEVER know the full story but it's fun to contemplate how and why while drifting off to sleep.

david burns on March 22, 2017:

why is there no mention of gobleki tepe? older than any of this in south america?

Buelowbuilt on August 20, 2016:

One of the things I learned recently is that Earth is not the ideal cauldron for intelligent life we have been led to believe it is. It is a barely habital planet subject to regular mass extinction events due to super volcanoes and a solar system littered with debris from an exploded planet which created a dangerous asteroid belt. Our sun is of a type that will someday expand and burn Earth to a crisp.

There are what are now being called Super-Habital planets. These planets circle dwarf stars that burn their fuel slowly and consistently and can last for 13 billion years. A planet orbiting such a sun in the goldilocks zone without debris from an exploded planet would have billions of years to develop an advanced race without constant start- overs from mass cosmic extinctions.

Even with our primitive rockets we have launched the Kepler planet finding satellite that has identified thousands of planets. More advanced cultures have had time to identify and develop the technology to visit interesting planets across the galaxy.

If visitors from a super-habital planet set up bases on earth they may have been taken by surprise when a comet slammed into Earth 12500 years ago causing the damage we see from the catastrophe such as Puma Punka. They may have decided further investment in Earth unwise due to local problems. They also might have opted for deep underwater or underground bases.

Another point to consider is that Mother Nature makes species just smart enough to survive then evolution stops. Sharks have been relatively unchanged for 250 million except or downsizing. Cats evolved to the perfect predator then stopped. Even a house cat can walk outside and survive. Is Mother Nature just another word for God? If Mother-Nature/God can react to cosmic events and mass extinctions then it may have realized the need for a super intelligent life form that could develop the technology to divert a large asteroid, defuse a super volcano or even reposition the orbit of the earth. This may be why man is way smarter than he needs to be just to survive. Man's sudden explosion of high technology is Mother Nature's race against the next cosmic event.

The building blocks of life permeate throughout all space and time. Any place life can exist, it will exist. While intelligent life is probably relatively rare, the number of super habitual planets is so astromical the chances of multiple visits to planet Earth seems likely.

In closing those who use this hub or the internet in general to denigrate others are your typical bully/cowards huddled in their mother's basement using the anonymity of the internet to say things they would never have the courage to say in person.

stephen on January 05, 2016:

ok I may not be the brightest person on the planet but have they ever thought the place could of been some sort of powerplant ??? . there seems to be holes drilled through the stones where some sort of fibre optic lines could run through and the stones could of held something like solar panels or some sort of shielding as for the destruction there could of been some sort of melt down ending in an explosion . it then could of released some sort of toxin into the air that would explain why every one left and did not return .

scotty on July 26, 2015:

What I want to know is how it was all smashed and bashed up.I don't buy the flood theory.if it was then Tiahuanacu should have been wiped of the face of the earth going by size,a lot smaller buildings.???

paul on June 24, 2015:

these are like there planet

David on June 08, 2015:

I think archaeologist need to take a serious look at the lost lands of MU. There are so many written records of it and it's history, but scientist just won't consider these records because they don't fit into current thinking.

They on January 09, 2015:

They are calling us home now!. Wonder no more

kristiankrusades on November 28, 2014:

Advanced people was all killed off by religious baboons as even today they still do.. on November 10, 2014:

The article was incorrect in one instance. The second rock used was dolomite not diorite. Dolomite is harder than granite. I know of nothing other than diamond that can abrade or cut these stones. I live in Barre , Vermont, the granite capital of the world. If it can be done to or with granite, it is done here.

krayzrick on November 09, 2014:

Mind boggling structures like this all over the world. We have trouble moving 5 ton stones, and they regularly worked with 100 if not 1000 ton stones.

What's always fascinated me is why in the world you want to build such difficult works?

If not to leave a permanent, impressive, record of your visit to Earth for future generations?

Rickbrick1 on May 16, 2014:

I've been a masonry contractor for 43 yrs.I've worked w/ just about every type of stone,marble,brick,block +all types of cement in + around the Wash. DC area. I don't think there very many masonry tools that I haven't used, or at least seen used to construct every type of building or monument in this area. I haven't a clue as to how some of these ancient megaliths were built.I like to think I've been around the block on this subject,but ?????????wtf?

Johnc552 on May 16, 2014:

I think you have remarked some very interesting points , appreciate it for the post. dakebeeagceb

Scott Campbell from Central Vermont on April 30, 2014:

I live in Vermont, the granite capital of the world. We know about cutting and moving rock. The 80 ton pieces could not be moved by any method we have today. A huge mistake was made by the writer. The rock is not diorite, it is dolomite. Dolomite is harder than granite. Granite is cut by diamond saws and diamond tools. A stone age civilization could not do this work. It takes very advanced equipment to do this.

Jon Ironworker on April 15, 2014:

I've moved many I beams 5,000 lbs with pipe rollers. One worker reached a little early and crushed fingers. Should be skeletons with missing fingers.

Stones in pictures look like cast concrete .

Pictures back when it was discovered show tractor lifting blocks army of guys digging in dirt etc .

What a joke!

j dilla on April 08, 2014:

saying there is no extraterrestial life out there, is like taking a cup and going to the boarder of the Atlantic ocean, scooping the cup, and saying there is no whales inside here. christian concervatives

Emmett McMahon on February 21, 2014:

As I have said before and some others here have commented in similar thought. I don't recall the part of the Bible where it was said but God is being quoted as saying something as "and there were several greater civilizations here before but I had them destroyed for their being evil.

Cee on January 07, 2014:

Correction: I meant to say nearly 12,000 feet altitude

Cee on January 05, 2014:

Actually, there aren't any trees in the area because it's at nearly 13,000 feet altitude, which means the air is to thin to support trees. No tree has ever been seen growing that high up, in Bolivia or anywhere else. Yes, trees die. They also reproduce. Anywhere where trees were cleared by humans, their seeds are constantly trying to take root again. Without people performing constant maintenance, trees will quickly return in abundance.

Dave on December 28, 2013:

You had me interested a first. However, when you read something insanely stupid like, "there aren't any trees in the area". I start thinking this must be some sort of scam. There aren't any trees in the area because they chopped them all down. What's so hard to understand about this concept? Trees die and fade away, they are a life form. Stones stay for a long time.

Cee on December 06, 2013:

Great post Backwoods! What you say is so true. This is a bit off the subject, but if you're interested in a fascinating read, I recommend "Abduction" by Robin Cook and "Twilight Eyes" by Dean Koontz. They are both novels which explore the possibility of earlier human civilizations achieving great technological ability and then being erased from history by great cataclysmic events. Both are very well written, but approach the subject very differently.

Backwoods tech on December 01, 2013:

A very interesting thread reading the years of responses, Most people forget man is a scavenger and a war loving creature.

It has been said "we are condemned to rise, be knocked down and rise again". How many books have been burned by invading armies? How many museums and temples looted? How much art destroyed just for the gold or silver it contains? We see our selves as educated yet are less educated than ever. We don't need to know more than what it takes to make a living so most do not try. Our children can not make fire unless playing with matches or a lighter and we take them away. We buy children "safe" books and games to keep them busy but not smart. Check any high school chemistry book from 1950 or 1960 against any high school chemistry book now, as example.

One good war and we are back to chasing rats and squirrels and wishing we had the lighter again.

Personally, I follow the "it was us" theory. One or two civilizations could have risen earlier then the others, and moved to explore the planet if not near space. The "H" blocks with dove tailed slots on the opposite side seemingly made to hold alignment keys of a lesser material would seem to make a good stable platform for a mag-lift launcher. Then again, we are human and subject to find fault with others easily and so prone to war.

War leaves metal laying around to make swords and spear points out of until it's lost as well, or too worn to reuse.

Then we believe in religions, each is the only way and everything belonging to others, wrong, so to make it right with our gods We must throw it in any near by fire or lake or melt it down to make icons for our gods.

Then there is natural hazards, poles have moved, land risen and subsided, temperatures lower and rise again, yet we see the world as a static place where all history is written. As if it happened as it is "now" and ignore conditions "then" while writing our histories. And worry about change, climate or otherwise, as though we could not live, because of our vast numbers, if temperatures rose a few degrees or fell.

Impossible? yet we have maps of the earth, and lines only seen from high altitude, we have different groups over the earth with stories of aerial combat, storied passed down with details of the color of the fuel used in vemadas, people loosing their hair and bleeding as if from radiation sickness or Abraham telling of seeing the roundness of the earth. So many "relatively" early groups with stories of people from the sky.

Personally, I'll continue to read everything I get my hands on and remember how to make fire without the lighter.

Cee on November 25, 2013:

Haven't been here in a couple years, and I'm glad to see some interesting discussions taking place, even though it seems that we've reached the point where we're rehashing many of the same old comments. Still. I'd like to add a couple things. @DareStiney: Sorry, but you have to do better. Quoting Wikipedia proves nothing. Anyone can post whatever they want on it. Show me an actual scientific study, backed up by CREDIBLE sources and real archaeologists if you want to convince me. @GreenCrimson: Just what exactly was carbon dated? The stones of Puma Punku itself? Or other artifacts found in the area, or what? Carbon dating only works on organic matter, which is where carbon is found. In other words, YOU CAN'T CARBON DATE STONE! And if it's other artifacts, how do you know they were there to begin with? They could just as easily have been brought in thousands of years later. Judging by the degree of erosion, they have to be way older. As for those who claim it's all made of sandstone, that explanation doesn't fly either. Sandstone is a very soft stone, which just doesn't fit with what I've seen. Let's see anyone make such sharp corners in sandstone with a hand chisel. For that matter, let's see anyone make those perfect, precise grooves in ANY materiel by hand. or get those perfect inside corners right by banging away with a hand chisel.

Another thing, don't make the assumption that just because Tiwanaku and Puma Punku are in such close proximity that they were made at the same time by the same builders. A quick examination of both sites shows major differences in building styles and the quality of stonework. While Tiwanaku is very beautifully made, it's nowhere close to the level of precision at Puma Punku. Also, Tiwanaku seems mostly made up of small bricks, easily transported, not the massive megaliths of Puma Punku. I don't buy the concrete theory either, because having worked extensively with concrete, I can tell you with certainty that those sharp edges will be quickly broken off, and also that it doesn't last like stone when exposed to the elements. There would be major cracking and pitting. Not to mention that no one has explained how the molds for the concrete were made with such small grooves and holes in them. Doesn't seem feasible to me. And no one seems to be paying attention to the fact that the Aymara insist that Puma Punku was built "by the gods" in "a single night". And let's not forget the simple fact that at Tiwanaku, mixed in among all the various stone faces (which are all of normally proportioned human heads with various more or less flesh-toned colors) are two which are off-white or grayish in color, and also sport unusually large, odd-shaped eyes and very dis-proportionately large heads, unlike any of the others. What are they doing there? Why would the ancient builders have carved those two very unusual faces amid all the other clearly human ones? Where would they have possibly gotten that idea from? One possibility is they represent the previously mentioned "gods".

And while I (obviously) lean very strongly toward the Ancient Astronaut Theory, I have to say that I like Tensins' idea, even though I don't find it feasible that anyone could have done that by hand. At any rate, I'll be looking forward to reading the responses my most recent post generates.

JimHavok on October 28, 2013:

I have a video game system around here somewhere thats older than Puma Punku.

bart pro/stone mason on October 20, 2013:

proof js in the work/consitence/acuracy

T on October 07, 2013:

the answer is really easy what would you do if you know that a comet or

another alien species does not want you or finds you a threat.

advanced species can easily direct objects directly into earth's direction.

the only way to find out is to read the ancient buildings the truth lies

in the design be it measurement or star aliments..

The longer a civilisation can survive for the more advance it will be.

the rich stay richer & poor poorer.

Well the same works for the biggest players planets , solar systems

galaxies .

we spend all of our time in war or politics then the other time, reading


We should be more involved in space travel, how to manipulate time

if we don't we will not survive.

We are like lab mice, once we are gone they will chuck some more humans down here then start the wheel again.

Maybe we already have a advanced civilisation but we are not on the guest list.

If i had the means I will build my self a craft & explore the universe &

all what lies in it, that will be some thing then only i will know who god


Have you checked out the the discovery Gobeklitepe?

pmack800 on September 28, 2013:

So the earth is billions of years old, and habitable to the human race for this duration. We have western recorded history that pinned against the perspective of the lifespan of the plant, is comparable to mere seconds, the Japanese have old records, and if Sadam Hussein had not destroyed so much of the evidence of the Sumerian and Babylonian sites. (Note the controversial bowl found at the site at Puma Punku with Sumerian inscriptions, mainstream scientists deem this an OOPART for the most part, an anomaly of an artifact, I will leave that at rest, as it strays from my point). My point being, that if the earth has been habitable for such a long duration, why couldn't have extremely advanced societies, some perhaps achieving a level of sophistication have spurned, been wiped out, spurned, wiped out, and the process repeating more times that we could even imagine. Why couldn't 12,000 years ago a race of humans, with technology superior to ours have existed, and then wiped out by a cataclysm. If anyone has ever seen the show "Life After People" on the History channel, its shocking how quickly a city like Manhattan would essentially disappear without a trace in only a few hundred years. Heck, 50,000 years ago there could have been a race of humans that had technology that made our current technology look like we're a bunch of hunter and gatherers'. Besides Puma Punku, there are other sites in Peru, pre-Inca, that have traits that cannot be explained other than these peoples possessed technology far superior to what we possess today, this goes for the great pyramids, and all of the Mayan Kingdom, who vanished as well. In my opinion, I think that civilizations, many civilizations at that, were erected, survived longer than we currently have or will, and were wiped off the planet in the remote, remote past, leaving little evidence. However, these OOPARTS due shed some light on this possibility. That's simply what I derive from that ancient ruins scattered around the world. And one day, we will we be wiped off the planet, and hopefully the human race survives as it has been, and starts again. So that is my explanation for Puma Punku, these people would look down upon our achievements today as childs play, they had achieved a level of sophistication in every facet of life, including technology, which would explain how this site could have been built, and under the many feet up muck that seems to indicate a global type extinction event, we find their ruins. As far as ancient aliens, who knows, the Sumerians clearly and bluntly state they came from the heavens, but these "aliens", would have simply been human, and probably were hiding out somewhere else on the planet. The number of times advanced cultures and peoples have been wiped out, we will never know, the earth has simply been around far too long, and we (as our current society), have been around for a mere spec of this planets existence.

Sum1uallno from Mexico City, Mexico on September 05, 2013:

@Tensins I would like to add you to my friends list.

Sum1uallno from Mexico City, Mexico on September 05, 2013:

@Tensins I like the way you think. =)

Tensins on September 03, 2013:

Just for starters I don't go with any kind of alien angle and I do think that in comparatives past civilizations are routinely underestimated for their goals, drive, cognition, practice, experience and expectations. I have read this article and watched a video at:

I came away with something I could at least imagine was comprehensive and that was that it was a school, or better; a university.

The site Puma Punta is a short distance from Tiwanaka which is estimated to have had a population of 20,000. There is a sunken courtyard lined with stones and adorned with carved heads. Perhaps representing the alumni or what would constitute a degree today.

Graduation may have been as prestigious as being a doctor or lawyer since in that time the construction and decoration of the public square including the religious aspect, was all done in stone.

The very straight line may have been the first thing to master followed by the boring of holes in that line. The line would have defined the shape and the holes would have allowed removal of large sections of unwanted material by striking with a chisel or tool.

The inverse shapes may have presented the degree of difficulty that had to be mastered in order to graduate. The line of stones that have the "H" shape may have been finished products that produced a passing grade. It is possible that one half of the "H" was done by one person and the stone flipped over to be repeated by another person.

There is no apparent semblence to what a structure may have looked like by the remains of the artifacts that lie scattered about the site and that may be because there was none. It may have simply been where class was conducted.

The person that could master that level of technicality would have been regarded as inordinate or special as much by the people of those times as they are now. A transendent occupation that endures beyond the scope of human expectation due to the medium could not be given but had to be earned by a few worthy and those would be those that line the walls of the sunken courtyard.

Sum1uallno from Mexico City, Mexico on August 14, 2013:

The greatest mystery of all time is was Puma Punku 3 years ago? It has been 10 years since they have proven that the "carved stones" are that of a mix like concrete... I would think language would have been the first choice. Good thing this is a very old post.. LOL

GreenCrimson on August 11, 2013:

Puma Punku is not very old. Puma Punku's radio carbon date puts it at AD 536–600 this puts it in the "Tiwanaku period" (AD 300 and AD 1000). In 1945, Arthur Posnansky estimated that Tiwanaku dated to 15,000 BC using archaeoastronomical techniques. Later, as a result of the reevaluation of the techniques that Posnansky used to estimate the age of Tiwanaku, expert archaeoastronomical archaeologists concluded that they were invalid as they were a "sorry example of misused archaeoastronomical evidence." With stone-age man ruled out for building it, the pre-Incan culture is likely the culprit for building it.

The Majority of the stone used is red sandstone and a mix of andesite and red sandstone common to that area. No diamond tools needed.

Lynda on April 13, 2013:

We are here for a very short time. Only a speck in the history as we know it. What a mystery! Never forget the ability of the human brain for that is the answer....

kris on April 06, 2013:

Stephen, you must read the bible and do not assume things from what hear, find out for your self do some research, other people could be wrong.

(also you may as well read the book of Enoch.)

Stephen on February 06, 2013:

The amazing issue is not only the stones, carving, moving: it's that this was done @ 15,000 years ago. Think about that. Before what is assumed to be the post Adam/Eve era when the Jews were 12 tribes?

frank on January 27, 2013:

Being a construction worker I know that construction methods were never 'lost'. These places of stone as written by the people who were there say 'star people came and built them' Yet we discARD THAT POINT. tHE AMOUNT OF ENGINEERING REQUIRED WOULD BOGGLE YOUR MIND.They had no language , calculis. drawings. and the wh

Chris Weber on January 25, 2013:

Aliens are not from outer space, they are not your friends , they are very strong, they don't even look like us, they were not born, they don't die, they have no females, so there are no baby aliens. they have no love for humanity.

Just can't remember clearly on January 05, 2013:

I think there are:

Bio-machines orbiting in outer space and inner earth space that can effect our perception of reality. They themselves behave as if they're alive.

There is always an interaction going on between us and them, they are apart of our existences, they affect our behavior and what we see and think. I've seen them up close. I got part of the answer at a very early age.They can do stuff and help us to do things and erase the memories of it. Maybe for our own good. Humans can do super amazing things and then made to forget them!

CHRIS WEBER on December 18, 2012:

how old is Puma punku because those steps are really worn down,

Dustin on December 07, 2012:

Maybe they had some sort of concrete.

martellawintek on December 02, 2012:

hello there macaulay sorry mate i`v took so long i think this is there link

and some info ,ring them for help & advice ,just say mrs wintek said you would get him sorted

d j doll on November 30, 2012:

the age they say is way is much older.

Rocky Lane Moore on November 21, 2012:

What is it? Was it destroyed by calamity, or by the ones who built it, or by enemies bent on its destruction.

From the design, you can infer that other machines such as lights, defensive works and scientific equipment fitted neatly into these tight crevices. They were machined to accept equipment that could be withdrawn. Since there is no equipment found, it follows that whoever built the fortress, retrieved their equipment, and then destroyed the fortress. Otherwise, there would be signs of radiation, broken bits of metal, and anomolies such as advanced technologies. Since these are not present, then the fortress was abandoned, and destroyed by whoever occupied this building. However, its design should be studied, and someday replicated by men to use in space exploration. A building that could easily be built from lazer guided cutters, and assembled as protective living quarters, later still discarded when no longer required, will be of great use to future space travellers

man from lisbon on November 18, 2012:


As I understand you found the river, it is very good

As I understand you found a written confirmation that the monolith was dragged about 250 years ago, it is very very good.

gottheanswer on November 18, 2012:

@ man from lisbon,

This article is NOT about Peter I.

man from lisbon on November 17, 2012:


...from river to the pedestal for the equestrian statue of Peter I less than 100m...,

Monolith was found and delivered, because the French sculptor Falconet so wanted. He lived in the time of Louis XV, and not 2500 years ago. His works are in the Louvre and the Hermitage.

If you have a shadow of doubt go to

About the last part- Im not on black/white position as you think

gottheanswer on November 17, 2012:

" and then transported it by the river. "

NO river there

"Preserved paintings, coins, and a detailed description of the entire transportation process. "

This culture may have not had a written language and it was made at least 2500 years ago.

"It is a pity that there is money for another new Mars rover "

No, it is not, learning is the most important aspect of human survival. One can not live in the past without looking into the future at what lies in front of mankind.

man from lisbon on November 16, 2012:

Good Hub. I believe in people more than in aliens. About 250 years ago russians dragged monolith weighing 1,600 tons!!! 8km away, and then transported it by the river. This was followed with great interest all over Europe. No machines. Animals were not used. May be the most difficult part was to dig up the stone and put it on the platform. Thousands of people took part. While dragging, more than 40 people were on the monolith, giving it shape.. Preserved paintings, coins, and a detailed description of the entire transportation process. The final weight today - 1,250 tons (Saint-Petersburg) and it serves as a pedestal for the equestrian statue of Peter I, better known as "The Bronze Horseman." It is the largest monolith, which people had ever moved.

What does someone needs to drag a huge monolith?

A lot of people, a lot of ropes, levers and savvy. And someone needs the Empire. Huge monoliths move only within the Empires, and only in the direction of their capitals.

The ruins of Puma Punku...It is a pity that there is money for another new Mars rover and no money for our own history. In the end, Mars will not go away, but the artifacts are gone forever

Pit-Luk on November 12, 2012:

How on earth do you move a stone 800 tons in weight form the quarry which is 10 miles away and to the site in the mountains? Even with the technology that we have today it's not possible at all.

koda on November 09, 2012:

To me a flood doesn't explain how the rocks are broken up in pieces smaller than marbles to Hugh pieces.It's as if the pieces of rock resemble stratnal from a bomb.

Byron L. Wheeler on October 15, 2012:

Well said historyguy83, I guess they're tired of speculating because that's all they can do. Without a major above and below ground dig, all they have are these ridiculously perfect stones that would be hard to duplicate today. Where is their curiosty...they're imagination? Oh yeah, on Mars. Been there done that. They're looking for alien life?...they might find artifacts of it buried right here on earth at Pumu Punku. Then again, the bribe required to pay Bolivian officials might be a deal breaker. Why won't Branson or Ballard or even a big Hollywood studio finance such an epic adventure? Hey, they could have a screenwriter on site to chronicle the findings and maybe create the next billion dollar blockbuster. Sadly, just some 15,000 year old beautifully designed and impossibly cut ruins used as resting benches for weary llama herders.

Emilio Bueno on October 03, 2012:

Have you ever heard about the Fuente Magna scripts found in Tiwanaku

Michael Dotterweich from Canton, Oh on September 28, 2012:

Why is mainstream academia afraid to speculate on the ruins found at Pumu Punku? The architecture defies all of our preconceptions of early civilizations yet the ruins have been cast aside by researchers. The site, and many others like it, is an anomaly to modern science and is therefore avoided.

hi on August 13, 2012:

jesus did not say so my friend because jesus died in india.

They found a scrole nex to the toom where was supposedly burried

read this book

: Talmud Jmmanuel by Judas Ischarioth and Billy Eduard Albert Meier

and this one: Celestial Teachings: The Emergence of the True Testament of Jmmanuel (Jesus) by James W. Deardorff

Remi Lande on July 28, 2012:

This was build by the sons of god, mention in Genesis Chapter 6 verse 1-4. Their Children "hybrid" of Nephilim and human had the knowledge to build this. They will come back again Jesus sad in the last days. This time they are pretending to be "Aliens" from a far away galax and they will claim to have made us humans. All i prophecied in the Bible. Read revelation 13 and be ready. Receive Jesus Christ as Lord and Savior. God bless you all. Her are some info:

intresting hub on July 10, 2012:

we have bee abandoned! yes

but we are been watch

starshippe on July 06, 2012:

. . several weeks ago, i was fortunate enough to watch the sunrise on the solstice from the akapana hotel, overlooking the three temples. it was cold outside! thousands of people were in attendance, including the vp of bolivia. most of them partied throughout the night.

. . i had a guide the previous day who showed me the temples, puma punku, and the museums. they were closed on the 21st, which is "day zero" to the locals. their year has 364 other days.

. . when asked what he thought about how it was accomplished, he said that he had no idea.

. . i went wanting to see and feel the rocks of puma punku, and was astonished at the museum pieces from the other temples. as i understand it, only about 15 % of the area has been "excavated."

. . a german named posnansky spent several decades studying the site in the early 1900s, and came to the opinion that there had been assistance from extraterrestrials. judging from some of the pictures i got, of mummies found in peru, it certainly seems possible.

Joan Veronica Robertson from Concepcion, Chile on June 25, 2012:

Hi again! An interesting Hub with lots of comments and lots of debate, but where did the author get to? We have been abandoned!

Joan Veronica Robertson from Concepcion, Chile on June 21, 2012:

A great read! Voted Up, awesome, beautiful and interesting! I do miss the authors replies, though!

anon on June 19, 2012:

Kalasala means place of art or a university in Sanskrit @ India! Suggest replace y with letter l and see if that makes sense. Also in Indian legends there are the mayyans who were master builders of palaces etc- water transport might have been big at that time and intercontinental ocean travel was big?

Marcy Goodfleisch from Planet Earth on June 19, 2012:

Amazing! Watching a piece on this place on the History Channel even as we speak. Simply incredible. Thanks for this awesome hub!

Byron L. Wheeler on June 04, 2012:


Point counterpoint...and point well taken. You're example of the lighthouse is a good one...I agree. Even large structures can disperse and seem to disappear in a short period of time depending on what happens to them. Still, give me enough ice and I'll preserve my lexus at least as long the iceman from the Alps (5000 years). Too bad Puma Punku isn't located in a country that gives a damn. Who knows, with intense excavations we might find all the materials we talk about under some ancient mud flow or earthquake.

As for the stones, I think we both agree some power source was used to move this material from the quarry ten miles away...cut, drill and polish them and stack them in some configuration. It would seem, however,that they would either have or not have adequate power to undertake such an endeavour. As for lighter materials, an absolutely unbreakable crane with the weight of balsam wood is not going to lift these stones. Unless it's anchored to the core of the earth. Enertia has to enter the equation at some point. Weight against weight - strength for strength. You either have enough power to pull or lift something or you don't. My friend and I will never lift his RV no matter how much time we give it. We can't wait it out...unless we're waiting for plate tectonics to help. Let's not forget, we're talking about one million six hundred thousand pounds. If they had advanced power I believe they cranked it up to 10 and got the job done...much like we do.

Alas, I agree, conventional thinking will neve